The Impact of Marriage and Childbearing on Women's Employment and Earnings in Urban China and Japan

Pianpian Carolyn Xu, Yale University

Using data from the China General Social Survey and Japan General Social Survey,this paper examines:(1)differences in gender inequality in labor force participation and earnings between China and Japan;(2)if family characteristics,such as marriage and presence of preschool children, have larger negative effects on women's employment and earnings in Japan than in China;(3)factors accounting for the differences, if any.The results indicate whereas marital status and spouse's education and earnings have significant negative effects on women's labor force participation in Japan, these effects are smaller in China.Motherhood earnings penalty is only significant in the non-public sector, not in the public sector in Japan. In China,motherhood earnings penalty is not significant in both sectors.Marriage earnings penalty for women in both countries exists. I discuss the effects of state policies, labor market structures, family system, and individual characteristics on men and women's labor force participation and earnings from a comparative gender stratification perspective.

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Presented in Poster Session 6