Substitution of Internal Migration with International Migration as an Adjustment to Economic Shocks in Poland
Marek Kupiszewski, Central European Forum for Migration and Population Research (CEFMR)
After the fall of communism the economic, political and social transformation in Poland brought about the changes in the patterns of population migration and mobility. The changes included reduction in internal migration and change of the structure of flow, from dominated by the rural to urban migration to net gains of rural areas and increase in importance of intra-urban migration. Also commuting decreased substantially with the reduction of subsidies to the cost of commuting and change in the structure of demand for the labour force. At the same time international migration increase, especially short term and pendulum migration which has limited impact on demographic composition of the population, but has important economic consequences. A hypothesis is set in Poland the international migration substitutes to some extend the internal migration and commuting in providing certain section of the labour force with jobs and income.